Development and application of biodegradable plastic

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Biodegradable plastics

 

The definition of biodegradable plastics, it is to point to in nature, such as soil, sand, water environment, water environment, certain conditions such as composting and anaerobic digestion conditions, the degradation caused by microbial action of the existence of nature, and eventually decomposed into carbon dioxide (CO2) and/or methane (CH4), water (H2O) and mineralization of the containing element inorganic salt, and the new biomass (such as the body of microorganisms, etc.) of plastic.

 

Biodegradable plastics 

 

Several common biodegradable plastics

 

material

Raw material source

performance

Application field

Degradation of way

Biochar content

PLA

Starch, sugar,

Hard, brittle, poor usability

Packaging materials, fiber, food and beverage, biological medicine, etc

Industrial composting

100%

PBAT

Petroleum, coal, and butanediol can come from starch

Soft, tough, good usability

Packaging materials, agricultural film, etc

Industrial composting, home composting

0%(petroleum based)~36.5%(butanediol bio-based)

PBS

Petroleum, coal, butanediol, and succinic acid can be derived from starch

Hard, brittle, poor usability

Packaging materials, tableware, agricultural film, biological medicine, etc

Industrial composting, home composting

0%(petroleum based)~50%(butanediol or succinic acid bio-base)~100%(butanediol or succinic acid bio-base)

PHAs

Starch, sugar,

The price is expensive and the stability is poor

Packaging materials, fiber, biological medicine, etc

Industrial composting, home composting, sea water degradation

100%

PPC

Oil, coal, carbon dioxide can come from biomass

Excellent barrier performance, low glass transition temperature, can not be used alone

Packaging materials, agricultural film

Industrial composting

0%~25%(carbon dioxide bio-based) 

PGA

Oil and coal

Hard, brittle, poor usability

Packaging materials, biomedicine, etc

Industrial composting, home composting, sea water degradation

0%

PCL

Oil and coal

Low melting point, good toughness, low strength

Packaging materials, biomedicine, etc

Industrial composting, home composting, sea water degradation

0%

starch

plant

Can not be used alone, but can be used as a filler, reduce cost

Packaging materials, tableware

Industrial composting, home composting, sea water degradation

100%

 

Productivity and distribution of biodegradable plastics

 

According to the latest data released by the European Bioplastics Association in September 2019, as of September 2019, the global annual production capacity of biodegradable plastics is 2.144,000 tons;

PLA (polylactic acid) was 628,000 tons, accounting for 29.3%;

PbAT (polyadipic acid/butylene terephthalate) was 60.68 tons, accounting for 28.3%;

Starch-based degradable plastic was 96.27 tons, accounting for 44.9% of the global biodegradable plastic capacity.


Biodegradable condition

 

Soil degradation

 

PBAT, PHA, PCL and PBS could be completely degraded after 5 months.

The degradation rate of PLA materials is relatively slow, only 0.23% a year.

PLA and PKAT can be completely degraded in about half a year after blending.

  Biodegradable plastics

The water degradation

 

PHA and PKAT can be completely degraded in 30~60 days under the simulated seawater condition of 25℃±3℃.

Making a diligent search for the best product might be a great task that is demanding and challenging sometimes.


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